This gives a value in radians, which is easy to convert to degrees. To get distance in English units, you must express the radius in English units.

Similarly, you must express the radius in metric units to get the distance in kilometers, meters, centimeters or millimeters. A radian is an angular measurement based on the length of the radius of a circle or sphere. The radius is a line drawn from the center of the circle to a point A on its circumference or on its perimeter if it is a sphere.

By definition, one radian is the angle you scribe when the length of the arc from point A to point B equals the length of the radius. For this expression to work, you must express arc length and radius in the same units. For example, suppose you want to determine the angle of the arc traced by radial lines extending from the center of the earth to San Francisco and to New York. These two cities are 2, miles 4, kilometers apart, and the equatorial radius of the earth is 3, miles kilometers.

Dividing both sides of this equation by 2, we get:. We need one key piece of information before we can convert degrees to arc length, and that's the radius of the circle or sphere on which we measure the arc. Once we know it, the conversion is simple. Here's the two-step procedure:. If you know the radius in inches and you want the arc length in millimeters, you must first convert the radius to millimeters.

In this example, you want to determine the length of the arc — in millimeters — on the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 50 inches traced by a pair of lines that form an angle of 30 degrees. Chris Deziel holds a Bachelor's degree in physics and a Master's degree in Humanities, He has taught science, math and English at the university level, both in his native Canada and in Japan. He began writing online inoffering information in scientific, cultural and practical topics.

His writing covers science, math and home improvement and design, as well as religion and the oriental healing arts. Convert degrees to radians. Multiply by the radius to get the arc length in the same units. Start by converting the angle to radians. Remember that the radius of a circle is half its diameter. Multiply the radius by the angle in radians to get the arc length. About the Author. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd.The nautical mile was originally defined as a minute of latitude on a hypothetical spherical Earth so the actual Earth circumference is very near 21 nautical miles.

These units originated in Babylonian astronomy as sexagesimal subdivisions of the degree; they are used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomyoptometryophthalmologyopticsnavigationland surveyingand marksmanship. The fact that the terms "minute" and "second" also denote units of time derives from Babylonian astronomywhere the corresponding time-related terms denoted the duration of the Sun's apparent motion of one minute or one second of arc, respectively, through the ecliptic.

## How to Measure Distances in the Night Sky

It is also abbreviated as arcsec or asec. The full moon 's average apparent size is about 31 arcminutes or 0. An arcminute is approximately the resolution of the human eye. An arcsecond is approximately the angle subtended by a U.

A microarcsecond is about the size of a period at the end of a sentence in the Apollo mission manuals left on the Moon as seen from Earth. A nanoarcsecond is about the size of a penny on Neptune 's moon Triton as observed from Earth. Since antiquity the arcminute and arcsecond have been used in astronomy. The principal exception is right ascension RA in equatorial coordinates, which is measured in time units of hours, minutes, and seconds.

The arcsecond is also often used to describe small astronomical angles such as the angular diameters of planets e. These small angles may also be written in milliarcseconds masor thousandths of an arcsecond. The unit of distance, the parsecnamed from the par allax of one arc sec ond, was developed for such parallax measurements. It is the distance at which the mean radius of the Earth's orbit more precisely, one astronomical unit would subtend an angle of one arcsecond.

Apart from the Sun, the star with the largest angular diameter from Earth is R Doradusa red giant with a diameter of 0. The dwarf planet Pluto has proven difficult to resolve because its angular diameter is about 0. Space telescopes are not affected by the Earth's atmosphere but are diffraction limited. For example, the Hubble Space Telescope can reach an angular size of stars down to about 0. Techniques exist for improving seeing on the ground. Adaptive opticsfor example, can produce images around 0.

At sea level one minute of arc along the equator or a meridian indeed, any great circle equals exactly one geographical mile along the Earth's equator or approximately one nautical mile 1, metres ; 1. The exact distance varies along meridian arcs because the figure of the Earth is slightly oblate bulges a third of a percent at the equator. Positions are traditionally given using degrees, minutes, and seconds of arcs for latitudethe arc north or south of the equator, and for longitudethe arc east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Any position on or above the Earth's reference ellipsoid can be precisely given with this method. However, when it is inconvenient to use base for minutes and seconds, positions are frequently expressed as decimal fractional degrees to an equal amount of precision.

Related to cartography, property boundary surveying using the metes and bounds system relies on fractions of a degree to describe property lines' angles in reference to cardinal directions. A boundary "mete" is described with a beginning reference point, the cardinal direction North or South followed by an angle less than 90 degrees and a second cardinal direction, and a linear distance.

The boundary runs the specified linear distance from the beginning point, the direction of the distance being determined by rotating the first cardinal direction the specified angle toward the second cardinal direction. The arcminute is commonly found in the firearms industry and literature, particularly concerning the precision of riflesthough the industry refers to it as minute of angle MOA. For example, if the point of impact is 3 inches high and 1.

Such adjustments are trivial when the scope's adjustment dials have a MOA scale printed on them, and even figuring the right number of clicks is relatively easy on scopes that click in fractions of MOA.

This makes zeroing and adjustments much easier:. Another common system of measurement in firearm scopes is the milliradian mrad. Zeroing an mrad based scope is easy for users familiar with base ten systems. One thing to be aware of is that some MOA scopes, including some higher-end models, [ citation needed ] are calibrated such that an adjustment of 1 MOA on the scope knobs corresponds to exactly 1 inch of impact adjustment on a target at yards, rather than the mathematically correct 1.

While the difference between one true MOA and one SMOA is less than half of an inch even at yards, [13] this error compounds significantly on longer range shots that may require adjustment upwards of 20—30 MOA to compensate for the bullet drop. In competitive target shooting, this might mean the difference between a hit and a miss.This tool converts degrees to arcminutes deg to arcmin and vice versa.

The user must fill one of the two fields and the conversion will become automatically. Popular Converters. Angle Converter. Radian to other unit Degree to other unit Arcminute to other unit Arcsecond to other unit Gradian to other unit Gon to other unit Cycle to other unit.

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Table degrees to arcminutes. Terms and Conditions - Privacy Policy. Degree to Radian. Degree to Arcminute.

**Decimal Degrees to DMS Formula - Converting Degrees Minutes and Seconds to Decimal - Trigonometry**

Degree to Arcsecond. Degree to Gradian. Degree to Gon. Degree to Cycle. Radian to Degree. Radian to Arcminute. Radian to Arcsecond. Radian to Gradian. Radian to Gon. Radian to Cycle. Arcminute to Radian.

Arcminute to Degree. Arcminute to Arcsecond. Arcminute to Gradian.

### Convert arc-minutes to degrees

Arcminute to Gon. Arcminute to Cycle. Arcsecond to Radian. Arcsecond to Degree. Arcsecond to Arcminute.Leave us a question or comment on Facebook. Com All Rights Reserved. Required Data Entry. DDD MM. This converter requires the use of Javascript enabled and capable browsers. It is designed to convert the various distinct methods of co-ordinate nomenclature from one methodology to another. Due to the fact that GPS information is so readily available now for daily weather information, automotive use, aviation, marine and personal use, many companies have set their own standards as to how that information is displayed and disseminated.

Any method is very accurate in the native form but converting between them can create substantial error. When using a hand held GPS for instance, you may have to use the information and convert it to or from what a GIS map displays.

We have created this series of converters to take degrees, minutes and seconds and convert them to decimal degrees or degrees and decimal minutes. In order to establish a point, you MUST have latitude and longitude coordinates in one form or another. If you need to get that information to a different format, use these converters.

Please keep in mind that this is a conversion utility and NOT an entry for a point. Validity is NOT tested. Remember that in the case of degrees of latitude, the format would be negative or positive DD, while longitude could be negative or positive DDD. There is usually a quadrasphere designation as well, such as N, S, E or W, based on the equator and the prime meridian.

For the hemisphere, either North or South, the designation is N or S for latitude. East of the prime meridian is E positive and West of the prime meridian is W negative. Negative numbers in certain situations, Southern latitude is displayed as negative; if you see a negative latitude, it is South while a negative longitude is West can also be used to express a quadrasphere designation.

Top 100 songs 1974In this converter, we do neither since it does not matter; we are ONLY converting numbers. All numbers are assumed to be positive.

Decimal Degrees is displayed as the degrees in normal value, with both minutes and seconds in decimal format, as a degree value.

Toyota hilux glow plug wiring diagram diagram base websiteThere is ONLY a degree designation. DDDD A maximum of 4 decimal places is adequate. MMMM in which seconds are converted to decimal minutes, as a minute value. Seconds have the value of 0 to 60, with 0 and 60 usually designated as 0 to 59 and then restarting at 0 being the same value, minutes have the same characteristics and degrees are valid from 0 to and to 0, 0 and do NOT have the same value both North and South of the equator, and East and West of the prime meridian.

If you are not familiar with latitude and longitude, here is a crash course in navigation. Probably a poor choice of words Lines of latitude and longitude are hypothetical lines on the surface of the Earth. On the Earth, lines of latitude are circles of different size.

On the Earth, lines of constant longitude meridians extend from pole to pole, and cross the lines of latitude. Every point on the surface of the Earth has coordinates where a given line of latitude and a give line of longitude intersect cross. To sum it up, latitude is measured from the equator, with positive values going north 0 to 90 and negative values going south 0 to Longitude is measured from the Prime Meridian which is the longitude that runs through Greenwich, Englandwith positive values going east 0 to and negative values going west 0 to Now that the designations and reasons for them are perfectly clear, here is the set of formulae if you need to do this manually.

Degrees Minutes Seconds to Degrees Minutes. There are degrees in a complete circle or sphere but in all longitude and latitude measurements, the total of the degrees is expressed as 2 halves of degrees each. Search or Browse Our Site.By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie PolicyPrivacy Policyand our Terms of Service.

Astronomy Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for astronomers and astrophysicists. It only takes a minute to sign up. I know it's a simple calculation but I keep failing simplest calculations today. These Moon-Earth distances are as seen from the centre of the Moon. To calculate the diameter from the surface of the Moon, you'll have to subtract the position of the observer along the Moon-Earth axis.

If the observer is on the Moon's equator and the Earth is at zero hour angle i. This gives the following values:. The Earth viewed from moon will appear larger, in proportion to how much larger the Earth's diameter is versus the moons diameter. So the Earth-view from the moon would appear 3.

I looked up the moon's typical angular diameter, it is 0. So the Earth's typical angular diam would be 1. The average angular diameter of the Moon, as seen from the Earth, is about 31 arcminutes. The angular diameter depends on the distance between the two objects and the diameter of the object being viewed.

Specifically, for small anglesit is the diameter divided by the distance. When the distance is the same, the angular size is proportional to the diameter. The distance remains the same when viewing the Earth from the Moon, but the Earth is larger. This is approximate, because not only is this valid only for small degrees, where the tangent of an angle can be approximated by the angle itself in radiansthe Earth-Moon distance varies because the Moon's orbit around the Earth is an ellipse.

Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. What is the angular diameter of Earth as seen from the Moon? Ask Question. Asked 5 years, 5 months ago. Active 2 years, 4 months ago. Viewed 18k times. What is the angular diameter of Earth as seen from the surface of the Moon? Oct 21 '14 at Active Oldest Votes. Or about 2 degrees.

### Sagittarius Individual Degrees

Earth diameter mi Moon diameter mi So the Earth-view from the moon would appear 3. James K BrettB BrettB 51 1 1 silver badge 1 1 bronze badge. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name.

Email Required, but never shown.Sometimes, the apparent distance between two celestial objects the distance we can actually see on the sky is indicated in terms of angular degrees.

But these descriptions can seem like a foreign language to folks who don't pore over star charts every day, so here's a handy primer. If we measured the distance around the circle of the entire horizon from north all the way around through east and south and west and back to north again that would equal degrees.

From the horizon to the point directly overhead the zenith would equal degrees; from one horizon point through the zenith and continuing across to the opposite side of the sky would measure degrees. You can also use your clenched fist as a sextant to measure the height of the moon, star, or planet above the horizon. Your clenched fist, correctly held, will roughly measure off degrees.

So you can use your fist to make a reasonable guesstimate of degrees either horizontally or vertically. The stars themselves can serve as handy yardsticks in the sky. The famous belt of Orionfor instance, measures 3-degrees and the twin stars of Gemini Pollux and Castor are 4-degrees apart.

This week, the constellation of Leo, the Lion conveniently stands high above the southern horizon at dusk. The backward-question mark pattern of stars popularly known as the Sickle forms the Lion's head and measures degrees from top to bottom.

Mike dreesmanThe distance between Leo's two brightest stars, Regulus at the bottom of the Sickle and Denebola which marks the tip of the Lion's tail is degrees. Occasionally two planets, or a star and planet will appear exceptionally close together in the sky ; their distance being less than a degree apart.

In such unusual cases, we would measure the distance between the two objects in tenths of a degree or in more extreme cases, in arc minutes. One degree, for instance, is equal to 60 arc minutes. One half of a degree, which is the average apparent size of the moon is equal to 30 arc minutes.

In the Big Dipper or the Plough if you are reading this in the United Kingdom the star at the bend of the handle is Mizar which appears to have a fainter companion about one-fifth as bright known as Alcor. Mizar and Alcor together are sometimes called the "Horse and Rider," and the ability to resolve the two stars with the naked eye is often quoted as a test of eyesight, although even people with quite poor eyesight can see the two stars.

They are separated by just 0. Indeed, two bright planets or a bright planet and bright star that are separated by less than this distance can make for a stunning visual spectacle.

I did some checking and found some very close conjunctions coming up during the next years in which two objects, either two bright planets or a bright star and a planet, will appear within a distance of less than arc seconds.

Sofia mazagatosI've listed five such cases in the table below. Conjunctions between Jupiter and Saturn occur on average once about every 20 years. But the case will be unusual in that rarely do these two planets ever appear to come so close to each other. Have you ever wanted to see Jupiter and its retinue of bright satellites passing Saturn and its famous ring system together in the same high-power field of a telescope? You'll be able to do so on this night!

In fact, the last time they were this closely spaced was in July and they will not appear so close together again until March Mark your calendars! Because it measures one-half degree in apparent size, some might think that the moon can be used to measure off angular distances, but this is far from the case. Indeed, a rising moon can sometimes appear absolutely enormous, yet an hour or two later it will appear to have shrunk to a considerably smaller size.

This strange effect has intrigued artists and puzzled psychologists for many years and has perplexed people since earliest historical times, such as Aristotle. No one seems to know exactly why this happens, though the most popular explanation is that the moon illusion is an optical illusion related to the Ponzo illusion in that the human mind judges an object's size based on its background with foreground objects such as trees and houses tricking our brain into thinking the moon is much bigger than it really is.

But even when it appears high in the sky, the moon looks "too big" to be one-half degree in width. And this illusion is not confined to the real sky, but is even evident in the "pretend universe" of a planetarium.

When the very first projectors were designed and made to project the moon's image of one-half degree on the planetarium dome as it appears in the real sky, it was found that it appeared too small to be realistic although it was in actuality the correct angular size with respect to the background sky. To rectify this problem, engineers doubled the size of the projected moon image to one-degree, which presents a much more realistic appearance; one of the few places where accuracy was sacrificed for the sake of realism.

Similarly, the real moon appears much larger against the real sky. Try this mental experiment some night when you can see both the Big Dipper and moon in the sky at the same time. First look at Dubhe and Merak, the two stars that are commonly used to point toward Polaris, the North Star.The nautical mile was originally defined as a minute of latitude on a hypothetical spherical Earth so the actual Earth circumference is very near 21 nautical miles.

These units originated in Babylonian astronomy as sexagesimal subdivisions of the degree; they are used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomyoptometryophthalmologyopticsnavigationland surveyingand marksmanship.

The fact that the terms "minute" and "second" also denote units of time derives from Babylonian astronomywhere the corresponding time-related terms denoted the duration of the Sun's apparent motion of one minute or one second of arc, respectively, through the ecliptic.

It is also abbreviated as arcsec or asec. The full moon 's average apparent size is about 31 arcminutes or 0. An arcminute is approximately the resolution of the human eye. An arcsecond is approximately the angle subtended by a U.

A microarcsecond is about the size of a period at the end of a sentence in the Apollo mission manuals left on the Moon as seen from Earth.

A nanoarcsecond is about the size of a penny on Neptune 's moon Triton as observed from Earth. Since antiquity the arcminute and arcsecond have been used in astronomy. The principal exception is right ascension RA in equatorial coordinates, which is measured in time units of hours, minutes, and seconds.

The arcsecond is also often used to describe small astronomical angles such as the angular diameters of planets e.

These small angles may also be written in milliarcseconds masor thousandths of an arcsecond. The unit of distance, the parsecnamed from the par allax of one arc sec ond, was developed for such parallax measurements.

It is the distance at which the mean radius of the Earth's orbit more precisely, one astronomical unit would subtend an angle of one arcsecond. Apart from the Sun, the star with the largest angular diameter from Earth is R Doradusa red giant with a diameter of 0.

The dwarf planet Pluto has proven difficult to resolve because its angular diameter is about 0. Space telescopes are not affected by the Earth's atmosphere but are diffraction limited.

For example, the Hubble Space Telescope can reach an angular size of stars down to about 0. Techniques exist for improving seeing on the ground. Adaptive opticsfor example, can produce images around 0. At sea level one minute of arc along the equator or a meridian indeed, any great circle equals exactly one geographical mile along the Earth's equator or approximately one nautical mile 1, metres ; 1.

The exact distance varies along meridian arcs because the figure of the Earth is slightly oblate bulges a third of a percent at the equator. Positions are traditionally given using degrees, minutes, and seconds of arcs for latitudethe arc north or south of the equator, and for longitudethe arc east or west of the Prime Meridian.

Any position on or above the Earth's reference ellipsoid can be precisely given with this method. However, when it is inconvenient to use base for minutes and seconds, positions are frequently expressed as decimal fractional degrees to an equal amount of precision. Related to cartography, property boundary surveying using the metes and bounds system relies on fractions of a degree to describe property lines' angles in reference to cardinal directions.

A boundary "mete" is described with a beginning reference point, the cardinal direction North or South followed by an angle less than 90 degrees and a second cardinal direction, and a linear distance. The boundary runs the specified linear distance from the beginning point, the direction of the distance being determined by rotating the first cardinal direction the specified angle toward the second cardinal direction.

The arcminute is commonly found in the firearms industry and literature, particularly concerning the precision of riflesthough the industry refers to it as minute of angle MOA. For example, if the point of impact is 3 inches high and 1. Such adjustments are trivial when the scope's adjustment dials have a MOA scale printed on them, and even figuring the right number of clicks is relatively easy on scopes that click in fractions of MOA.

This makes zeroing and adjustments much easier:.

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